The classical physic laws which applies to large-scale matters like planets, stars and other objects around us don’t apply to the sub-atomic scale world. That is why scientists have developed quantum physics, which contains a new set of laws for the sub-atomic particles. Quantum theory deals with particles and electrons which are the tiny tiny bit of matter.
Observers can change particle’s behavior
In the double-slit experiment particles like electrons behave sometimes as waves not particles, which was unexpected. It is unbelievable that an electron can go through two slits at the same time. That is why scientists observed the electron to understand how it goes through the slits. The result was even stranger, because the electrons started to behave like particles. When there wasn’t an observer, they acted as waves and formed an interference pattern. As soon as scientists started to watch their behaviors, they started to act as particles. The question is what has the observer to do with the behavior of the electrons.
Backwards in time
In the previous experiment the act of watching changed the behavior of the electrons. Without watching, the electrons acted as waves. But by observing them before they went through the two holes, they started to act as particles. Scientists have decided this time to watch them after they have passed through the holes, but before they hit the screen. Without an observer before the slits, it was expected that they would behave as waves again. The result was astonishing, because they behaved again as particles as if they went backwards in time and changed their past behaviors.
Penetrating solid walls
When an electron hits a solid wall, it might go through it and that is what scientists call quantum tunneling. In the world around us, objects or balls bounce back when we throw them at a solid wall. That makes our world different from the sub-atomic world. The explanation of the quantum tunneling is that the electrons might borrow energy from the future to penetrate the wall and then return it back.
Being in multiple places at the same time
Experiments at the sub-atomic level show that one object can be in two places at the same time.
Faster than the speed of light
When two sub-atomic particles interact they can become entangled and their properties become linked. Making a measurement of one of the particles affects instantly the behavior of the other one. That happens even if the two particles are separated millions of light-years.
According to the Einstein’s relativity theory, no objects can travel faster than the speed of light. Read More: 5 Amazing Ideas Of Einstein’s Relativity Theory . Experiments show that the speed of light is limited to 3x 10⁸ m/s. The question is how can changes can happen in such a great distances instantly. That means that someday quantum entanglement might help humans to transfer information faster than the speed of light.
Physicists simply cannot determine with certainty where a particle is located in the sub-atomic world, because they sometimes act as waves. If scientists try to put a particle in a box to determine its position, it will always break out of it before being able to locate its position.
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Author: Sar Maroof
Education: Bachelor Science and Applied Science in Physics.
Professional Java webdeveloper as well as several certificates in different branches
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